Hamid

   
 
  FHS-01
Course Code : FHS-01
Assignment Cod : FHS-01/AST/TMA/2007-2008
Maximum Marks : 100



Section -1 : Answer each question in about 500 words.

1. What do you understand by the term faudalism? Do you think the western Europe model of feudalism is appliacble to India?

Ans:-
Before the rise of national states in Western Europe, the people lived under a system called feudalism. This was a social system of rights and obligations based on land ownership patterns.

Each small district was ruled by a duke, count, or other noble. The noble's power was based on the land he held in feud. This peculiar system of landholding determined the pattern of government. It also gave rise to fortified castles, knights in armor, and chivalry. The term "feudalism" therefore describes an entire way of life.

The system of feudalism was established gradually, between the 8th and 11th centuries. France was the land of its earliest and most complete development, but in some form or other it was found in all the countries of Western Europe. It flourished especially from the 11th to the end of the 13th century. There are survivals of feudalism in the laws and social usages of modern European countries.
No,it is highly improbable that European feudalism is applicable in India.
Feudalism had begun as a contract, the exchange of land tenure for military service. Over time, as lords could no longer provide new lands to their vassals, nor enforce their right to reassign lands which had become de facto hereditary property, feudalism became less tenable as a working relationship. By the thirteenth century, Europe's economy was involved in a transformation from a mostly agrarian system to one that was increasingly money-based and mixed. The Hundred Year's War instigated this gradual transformation as soldier's pay became amounts of gold instead of land. Therefore, it was much easier for a monarch to pay low-class citizens in mineral wealth, and many more were recruited and trained, putting more gold into circulation, thus undermining the land-based feudalism. Land ownership was still an important source of income, and still defined social status, but even wealthy nobles wanted more liquid assets, whether for luxury goods or to provide for wars. This corruption of the form is often referred to as "bastard feudalism". A noble vassal was expected to deal with most local issues and could not always expect help from a distant king. The nobles were independent and often unwilling to cooperate for a greater cause (military service). By the end of the Middle Ages, the kings were seeking a way to become independent of willful nobles, especially for military support. The kings first hired mercenaries and later created standing national armies.

The Black Death of the fourteenth century devasted Europe's population but also destabilised the economic basis of society. For instance, in England, the villains were much more likely to leave the manorial territory - seeking better paid work in towns struck by a labour shortage, while the crown responded to the economic crisis by imposing a poll tax. The resulting social crisis manifested itself in the peasants' revolt.

Historian J. J. Bagley notes that the fourteenth century

"marked the end of the true feudal age and began paving the way for strong monarchies, nation states, and national wars of the sixteenth century. Much fourteenth century



2. Discuss the main threats to the eco-system.
Ans:-
There are broadly activities of man which are causing considerable damage to the eco-system.
These are -
      (1) The destruction of tropical rain forests.
      (2) Establishment of petro-chemical industries with their production of poisonous gases, chemicals and other toxic substances.
      (3) Generation of nuclear power and
      (4) Excessive, militarism.
      The long-term solution of these dangers is to look for self-sustaining life support systems.
      (5) Ecological crises will take place. Ecological crises, essentially refers to the disruption in the natural balance between living organisms and their surrounding, by the activities of man. Man has acted as an interventionist, so the say, and disrupted the surrounding. This had created q crises.
      (6) If ecological crisis will takes place then firsly there is the danger from poisonous chemicals, and pesticide, secondly there is danger from cereal is called the 'Green House Effect'. This leading to increasing a accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
      (7) Environment, degration and environmental aduteration would take place in very lhigh manner.


Section 2 : Answer each question in about 250 words.

3. What is meant by 'Market Failure'? Briefly discuss the major weaknesses of the free market economy.


Ans:- A county's economic health and property depend on health of its market. The market is controlled by what is controlled ny what is called 'market Forces' When these forces work in unison, in harmony and in the interest of people and the nation, the market remains healthy. The demand and supply of all commodies match as closely as possi8ble and keep the prices steady. However, there do come times when total market failuare takes places.
      Market Failuare is a situation when industries get closed. Already produced good is stored, the demand of the commodities almost decreased, share markets are also closed, the problem of unemployement increased in the country and the economy became totally disturbed. In 1992 that type of market failure had takes place.
      FreeMarket:- This is the type of market in which commodities are sold are purchased without the interterms. They are free to produce any amount of the product and at any price.
      There is no interference of Govt. in free market so the problem of black marketing takes place. Capital class exploit the weaker section so the capital class rich day per day & the poor class weak play per day, purchasing power of customer reduced day by day because of higher prices. Producers run the market as per their desire for earing maximum profit. The buseness of money lords grow and the economy weak day by day. Corruption less supply of product in the market, maximum profit, monopoly are the main wakness of the free market economy.




4. Describe the role of intellectuals up to the end of the 19th century India.

Ans:- If we don't look this aspect from a preoccupied thought, then we will find that the role of intellectuals is immense.Right from the time of Raja Ram Mohun Roy, who seriously pursued Sati abolition cause to Dada Bhai Nouroji who put forward the drain theory. In the middle of the nineteenth century, intellectuals played a key role for the cause of Indigo cultivators during the indigo revolution of Bengal in 1859-60, by writing petitions and filing court cases and filling forms for the illiterate cultivators.
one can find numerous such incidents. The success these intellectuals managed to get, is also behind our present faith fro Right to information and Indian way of doing things through petitions



5. Why do we require an independent judiciary in a federal setup?

Ans:- The guiding principle behind federalism is independence of government branches. This allows no single branch to decide the direction of the country, and with checks and balances there is a greater chance that the rights of the individual, especially those who are in the minority, will be protected from the will of the majority. An independent judiciary is vital to such a set up because it takes the laws created by the legislature and interprets them against the legal backdrop of the Constitution, without being swayed towards an interpretation favored by another branch. Once the judiciary becomes a pawn of another government branch, the delicate balance created by a three-branch government fails, and a small group can impose its will over the majority. The most important function of the judiciary is to ensure that the rights guaranteed by the nation's constitution are enforced. Once I cheat by having someone else do my homework, the whole system falls. An independent judiciary prevents a government from using the important matters of the day to justify illegal and immoral actions against the minority by passing and enforcing laws contrary to the ideals on which a nation is founded.



6. What do you understand by "urbanism"? Discuss its impact.

Definition: Urbanism is the word used by archaeologists to describe the process that drives people to live in cities. Cities are defined by their size (generally greater than 5,000 people), and the existence of a series of complexity traits, including such things as a central administration or government, and the segregation of people by class and/or occupation.

We assume, but don't really have a way of knowing, that people congregated together for protection, or to facilitate public projects like irrigation systems or the construction of large buildings. Living in clumps has problems that must be resolved for cities to continue, including the transport of food produced elsewhere into the city limits, and rubbish and sanitation transported outside.



Question 3 : Answer in about 100 words each.

7. Write short notes on any two of the following:
i) The Enclosure Movement

      The Enclosure movement in England peasants were ericted from the fields and lands was enclosed. When the peasants had no work, they migrated to cities seeking work. These peasants belonged to the lower due to enclosure process. The two waves of the Enclosure Movement were as under.
      i) The first wave came in the 16th and 17th centuries. During this period small peasants and tenants were evicted from land by land lords. The reason was that the latter had enclosed or fenced in large plots of land for breeding sheep to get wool for the expanding woollen textiles market.
      ii) The second wave came in the 18th and 19th centuries. The enclosures began to be macle to improve cultivate land as a business proposition.
      In the latter development the land owner evicted the peasants by special licence from the king or the private Acts of Parliaments (there are 2700 such Acts in 1700-1844) and other methods. As a result in 1883 in England and Wales land was concentrated in a few hands : 1.4 percent of private landowners owned 73.9 percent of land. The process converted the peasands higher to working in fields into landless proletoriat, a class of people who could get a living by selling labour power.


ii)Slavery in ancient India.

iii) The process of Sanskritisation
     
Sanskrit is the mother language of almost all Indian languages and also some out of Indian languages like Bhasha of Indonesia.
      Sanskrit is the oldest language in the world and also richest in classic literature. However it was neglected in the last 1000 years of alien rule.
      The process of sanskritisation means giving again the status of eminence to sanskrit as it had always enjoyed. The students are now encouraged to take sanskrit as a subject from early days. In every state a sanskrit academy has been set up special sanskrit Universities, like Lal Bahadur Shastri Sanskrit Universities have been set up. Government has sponsered correspondence courses of sanskrit learning. Also, there are regular news broadcasting radio and telecast on TV, some times also have been produced in sanskrit.
      Thus sanskritisation is in the process in education, radio, TV, films, science, technology Government offices etc. actively supported by the Government.


iv) Communal award of 1932









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